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Zack's (Not So) Basic CSS

Why do I want to know CSS?


Clean code

The Previous Slide

<div class="slide">
    <p class="titleslide">
        Clean code

Consistent UI

Write a CSS class once

…and use it again

…and again

Almost every website in the world uses CSS

What can I do with CSS?

CSS changes where something is on the screen and what it looks like.

CSS Can…

Change fonts and colors.
Change backgrounds.
Add margins.
Make ugly borders
  1. Change
  2. list
  3. styles
Change font sizes

…And Much More

How do I do that?

CSS Properties

font-size: 12px; set the size of the font to 12 pixels

width: 50%; set the width of the element to 50 percent

color: red; make the foreground color red

background: rgb(160, 205, 246); assign the background color rgb(160, 205, 246)

margin: 1em; give the element a margin equal to the width of an uppercase M

CSS Properties Cascade

font-size: 48px; assigned to the class jumpout

font-size: 1.25em; assigned to p tags

Find More Information About CSS Properties

Where do I write CSS?

There are three places to write CSS


<div style="position: absolute; top: 5px; left: 0px; width: 25%; height: 10em; background: #EEEEEE;">

A <style> tag in the HTML

<style type="text/css" media="all">
    #div2 {
        position: absolute;
        top: 5px;
        left: 33%;
        width: 25%;
        height: 10em;
        background: wheat;

A Separate CSS File

<link type="text/css" href="mycss.css" rel="stylesheet" />

 * This is the third div using some Firefox specific CSS styles
#div3 {
    position: absolute;
    top: 5px;
    left: 66%;
    width: 25%;
    height: 10em;
    background: wheat;
    -moz-border-radius: 20px;
    -moz-box-shadow: 0 4px 18px #C8C8C8;
    background-image: url('images/blue_fade.gif'); 
    background-repeat: repeat-x;
    background-position: bottom left;
    border: 1px solid black;

What does this code look like?

Example - css_example.html

How does CSS work?

Classes and IDs

The basic building blocks of CSS are IDs

<div id="myid">

and classes

<div class="myclass">

IDs must be unique for the page and classes can be reused.

Classes and IDs in CSS

IDs are accessed in the CSS using a pound sign #

 * These styles apply only to the one element myid
#myid {
    background-color: red;

Classes are accessed in the CSS using a dot in front of the name .

 * These styles apply to every element with the myclass class
.myclass {
    background-color: blue;

Elements in CSS

You can also set styles on elements by type.

 * This makes all bold elements red
b {
    color: red;

Now everything between the <b> and the </b> will be red.

CSS selectors can do even more

CSS Selector Examples

div > p matches every p tag that is a direct child of a div tag.

div p matches every p tag that is under a div tag.

div .myclass matches every element with the class of myclass that is under a div tag.

div[foo="bar"] matches every div tag that has an attribute of foo with a value of bar.

Pseudo-classes make it dynamic

CSS Pseudo-Class Examples

#myid:first-child matches the first child of the element with the id myid.

#myid:first-letter matches the first letter of the text contained in an element with the ID myid.

#myid:hover matches every the element with the id myid when the mouse hovers over it.

Example - css_typography.html

Without Changing Your Source

    Stately, plump Buck Mulligan came from the stairhead, bearing a bowl 
    of lather on which a mirror and a razor lay crossed… 

 * Make the first line larger and small caps
p:first-line {
    font-weight: 800;
    font-variant: small-caps;

 * Make the first letter really big
p:first-letter {
    font-size: 36em;
    line-height: 1em;
    font-weight: 400;
    float: left;
    margin: 0 0 0 -0.1em;

Example - css_typography.html

Find More Information About CSS Selectors

How do I learn CSS?


Firebug Is Your Friend

A screen shot of mozilla firebug

Start With This Presentation

Zack's (Not So) Basic CSS Contains…

the W3C CSS logo CSS (css_pres.css)

the W3C HTML logo HTML (css_pres.html)

the W3C JavaScript logo a pinch of JavaScript (css_pres.js)

…And nothing else

…And The Two Examples

css_example.html (and css_example.css)

css_typography.html (and css_typography.css)

Learn by doing

Create a CSS Zen Garden page

And ask lots of questions…